advertisement

CFI Brief: Airport Rotating Beacon

Have you ever wondered how pilots are able to determine the location of an airport at night or in reduced visibility? Well the answer is actually very simple. At night, the location of an airport can be determined by the presence of an airport rotating beacon light like the one seen in the image below. An airport beacon will assist you as a pilot in identifying the location and type of airport by the color combination the beacon is emitting.

The colors and color combinations that denote the type of airports are:

*Note: Green alone or amber alone is used only in connection with a white-and-green or white-and-amber beacon display, respectively.

A civil-lighted land airport beacon will show alternating white and green flashes. A military airfield will be identified by dual-peaked (two quick) white flashes between green flashes.

In Class B, C, D, or E airspace, operation of the airport beacon during the hours of daylight often indicates the ceiling is less than 1,000 feet and/or the visibility is less than 3 miles. However, pilots should not rely solely on the operation of the airport beacon to indicate if weather conditions are IFR or VFR.

The beacon has a vertical light distribution to make it most effective from 1–10° above the horizon, although it can be seen well above or below this spread.

Here is another nifty little tidbit you will learn once you start night flight training. Radio control of lighting is available at some airports, providing airborne control of lights by keying the aircraft’s microphone. The control system is responsive to 7, 5, or 3 microphone clicks. Keying the microphone 7 times within 5 seconds will turn the lighting to its highest intensity; 5 times in 5 seconds will set the lights to medium intensity; low intensity is set by keying 3 times in 5 seconds. Many airports, particularly airports without an operating control tower, will not keep runway lights on constantly throughout the night so it becomes the pilots responsibility to turn the runway lights on for landing or takeoff. Once the lights are keyed on they will typically remain on for 15 minutes. A quick glance in the Chart Supplement U.S. will identify an airport with pilot controlled lighting.

 

 

[del.icio.us] [Digg] [Facebook] [Furl] [Google] [Reddit] [StumbleUpon] [Twitter] [Email]


Read more about CFI...

IFR: Precision Instrument Runway Markings

Today, we’re sharing an excerpt from The Pilot’s Manual Volume Three: Instrument Flying. This post is a follow-up to last month’s IFR: The Instrument Landing System (ILS).

To assist pilots transitioning to a visual landing at the conclusion of a precision instrument approach, precision instrument runways have specific markings.

A displaced threshold on an instrument runway is indicated by arrows in the middle of the runway leading to the displaced threshold mark. The runway edge lights to the displaced threshold appear red to an airplane on approach, and to an airplane taxiing to the displaced threshold from the absolute end of the runway. They appear white when taxiing back from the displaced threshold toward the absolute end of the runway. The green runway end lights seen on approach to a runway with a displaced threshold are found off the edge of the runway.

The runway surface with arrows to the displaced threshold is available for taxiing, takeoff and landing roll-out, but not for landing. The initial part of this runway is a non-touchdown area. If chevrons rather than arrows are used to mark the displaced threshold, then the surface is not available for any use, other than aborted takeoff from the other direction.

Displaced threshold markings with preceding blast pad or stopway.

Displaced threshold markings with preceding blast pad or stopway.

A precision instrument runway will contain a designation, centerline, threshold, aiming point, touchdown zone, and side strips as seen in the figure below. Runway threshold strips can be configured in two ways. Four solid strips on either side of the centerline or configured as such that the number of strips correlates to the width of the runway (see table). The runway aiming point markers are large rectangular marks on each side of the runway centerline usually placed 1,000 feet after the threshold and serve as a visual aiming point for the pilot. Touchdown zone markers identify the touchdown zone for landing operations, providing coded distance information in 500 foot intervals and shown as either one, two, or three vertical stripes on either side of the centerline.

Runway width based on number of runway threshold strips.

Runway width based on number of runway threshold strips.

Markings on a precision instrument runway.

Markings on a precision instrument runway.

[del.icio.us] [Digg] [Facebook] [Furl] [Google] [Reddit] [StumbleUpon] [Twitter] [Email]


Read more about ASA...

Aircraft Performance: Runway Surface and Gradient

Today’s post comes from the Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge (FAA-H-8083-25B), which is now available as an eBook from ASA, iTunes, and Kindle.

Runway conditions affect takeoff and landing performance. Typically, performance chart information assumes paved, level, smooth, and dry runway surfaces. Since no two runways are alike, the runway surface differs from one runway to another, as does the runway gradient or slope.

Takeoff distance chart

Takeoff distance chart

Runway surfaces vary widely from one airport to another. The runway surface encountered may be concrete, asphalt, gravel, dirt, or grass. The runway surface for a specific airport is noted in the Chart Supplement U.S. (formerly Airport/Facility Directory). Any surface that is not hard and smooth increases the ground roll during takeoff. This is due to the inability of the tires to roll smoothly along the runway. Tires can sink into soft, grassy, or muddy runways. Potholes or other ruts in the pavement can be the cause of poor tire movement along the runway. Obstructions such as mud, snow, or standing water reduce the airplane’s acceleration down the runway. Although muddy and wet surface conditions can reduce friction between the runway and the tires, they can also act as obstructions and reduce the landing distance. Braking effectiveness is another consideration when dealing with various runway types. The condition of the surface affects the braking ability of the aircraft.

The amount of power that is applied to the brakes without skidding the tires is referred to as braking effectiveness. Ensure that runways are adequate in length for takeoff acceleration and landing deceleration when less than ideal surface conditions are being reported.

The gradient or slope of the runway is the amount of change in runway height over the length of the runway. The gradient is expressed as a percentage, such as a 3 percent gradient. This means that for every 100 feet of runway length, the runway height changes by 3 feet. A positive gradient indicates the runway height increases, and a negative gradient indicates the runway decreases in height. An upsloping runway impedes acceleration and results in a longer ground run during takeoff. However, landing on an upsloping runway typically reduces the landing roll. A downsloping runway aids in acceleration on takeoff resulting in shorter takeoff distances. The opposite is true when landing, as landing on a downsloping runway increases landing distances. Runway slope information is contained in the Chart Supplement U.S. (formerly Airport/ Facility Directory).

Chart Supplement U.S. information

Chart Supplement U.S. information

Water on the Runway and Dynamic Hydroplaning
Water on the runways reduces the friction between the tires and the ground and can reduce braking effectiveness. The ability to brake can be completely lost when the tires are hydroplaning because a layer of water separates the tires from the runway surface. This is also true of braking effectiveness when runways are covered in ice.

When the runway is wet, the pilot may be confronted with dynamic hydroplaning. Dynamic hydroplaning is a condition in which the aircraft tires ride on a thin sheet of water rather than on the runway’s surface. Because hydroplaning wheels are not touching the runway, braking and directional control are almost nil. To help minimize dynamic hydroplaning, some runways are grooved to help drain off water; most runways are not.

Tire pressure is a factor in dynamic hydroplaning. Using the simple formula in the figure below, a pilot can calculate the minimum speed, in knots, at which hydroplaning begins. In plain language, the minimum hydroplaning speed is determined by multiplying the square root of the main gear tire pressure in psi by nine. For example, if the main gear tire pressure is at 36 psi, the aircraft would begin hydroplaning at 54 knots.

Tire pressure

Tire pressure

Landing at higher than recommended touchdown speeds exposes the aircraft to a greater potential for hydroplaning. And once hydroplaning starts, it can continue well below the minimum initial hydroplaning speed.

On wet runways, directional control can be maximized by landing into the wind. Abrupt control inputs should be avoided. When the runway is wet, anticipate braking problems well before landing and be prepared for hydroplaning. Opt for a suitable runway most aligned with the wind. Mechanical braking may be ineffective, so aerodynamic braking should be used to its fullest advantage.

[del.icio.us] [Digg] [Facebook] [Furl] [Google] [Reddit] [StumbleUpon] [Twitter] [Email]


Read more about ASA...

Navigation: Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast

Today, we’re featuring an excerpt from The Pilot’s Manual: Instrument Flying (PM-3D).

Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is a surveillance technology being deployed throughout the entire National Airspace System. ADS-B enables improved surveillance services, both air-to-air and air-to-ground, especially in areas where radar is ineffective due to terrain or where radar is impractical or cost prohibitive. Eventually, ADS-B will replace most ground-based surveillance radars.

The basic principle of ADS-B is that each aircraft broadcasts a radio transmission approximately once per second, which contains the aircraft’s position, velocity, identification, and other information. This capability is referred to as “ADS-B out.” This transmission is received by the ground-based transceivers (GBTs) and by other appropriately-equipped aircraft. (The capability to receive ADS-B information is referred to as “ADS-B in.”) The ADS-B ground station processes the information and uses it to provide surveillance services. The composite traffic information is uplinked as the product, “Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B).” In order to detect each other, no ground infrastructure is necessary for ADS-B equipped aircraft (i.e., those with both ADS-B out and in).

ADS-B ground based transceiver (GBT) antenna.

ADS-B ground based transceiver (GBT) antenna.

There are two completely different methods for aircraft to transmit and receive the ADS-B information. Aircraft that primarily operate in high-altitude airspace send and receive the information using an enhanced Mode S transponder. Aircraft that primarily operate in the low-altitude airspace send and receive the information using the Universal Access Transceiver (UAT). The GBT receives information from both sources and rebroadcasts (ADS-R) it so that all aircraft have all the information.

ADS-B, TIS-B, and FIS-B: broadcast services architecture.

ADS-B, TIS-B, and FIS-B: broadcast services architecture.

Another feature related to ADS-B is called Flight Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B). FIS-B provides current weather products via an uplink from the GBT antennas to the UAT on the airplane. There is no fee for this weather service. More information on FIS-B is given in the “Datalink Weather Systems” section ahead on page 208.

Before FIS-B and datalink weather capability, pilots had to contact Flight Watch or a flight service station to have someone describe the weather radar picture for them. Now that picture is available in the cockpit. For example, NOTAMs and Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) can be graphically presented over the top of electronic charts, so pilots know what areas to avoid.

The ADS-B system also has downlink capabilities that may someday transmit actual weather data to the ground. In the future, airplanes could send down actual (not forecast) wind direction, velocity, freezing levels, turbulence, and more, to be analyzed in real time. The information could be constantly sent to the ground to build an enhanced, comprehensive, and current weather picture. This information is called an electronic PIREP.

Mandatory ADS-B Out Requirement
The term “ADS-B out” refers to the broadcast of ADS-B transmissions from aircraft, without the installation of complementary receiving equipment to process and display ADS-B data on cockpit displays to pilots. This complementary processing is called “ADS-B in.” ADS-B out is needed for cockpit displays to be able to directly observe traffic. ADS-B out can be deployed earlier than ADS-B in, since ATC surveillance (air-ground) can operate without ADS-B in.

Effective January 1, 2020, ADS-B out capability will be required for aircraft in the following airspace areas:

  • Class A, B, and C airspace;
  • all airspace above 10,000 ft MSL over the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia (excluding the airspace above 10,000 feet, but within 2,500 feet of the ground);
  • within the 30 NM veil of airports listed in 14 CFR §91.225; and
  • Class E airspace over the Gulf of Mexico from the coastline of the United States out to 12 nautical miles, at and above 3,000 feet MSL.
[del.icio.us] [Digg] [Facebook] [Furl] [Google] [Reddit] [StumbleUpon] [Twitter] [Email]


Read more about ASA...

CFI Brief: The ASA CX-3 Flight Computer—Coming REAL soon!

You have been asking us for an aviation flight computer with a backlit display, and trust us we’ve been listening. But we thought, if we are going to design a flight computer with a backlit display, why stop there? Wouldn’t it be cool if we had a backlit keypad as well? It sure would, so today I would like to introduce you to the next generation aviation flight computer: the ASA CX-3—complete with backlit display and keypad!

Image-1

The CX-3’s new display technology now incorporates settings for varying light conditions as well as display themes for standard, night, and daylight environments on a massive 3.2-inch LCD display. Even with the large display, we have managed to design a sleek compact unit that will fit comfortably in the palm of your hand.

The ASA CX-3 will become available in November at pilot shops and online retailers nationwide. To stay up-to-date on the latest news, check out www.asa2fly.com/CX3. We’ll be featuring CX-3 user tips on the Learn to Fly Blog very soon.

[del.icio.us] [Digg] [Facebook] [Furl] [Google] [Reddit] [StumbleUpon] [Twitter] [Email]


Read more about CFI...

Introducing the New CX-3 Flight Computer

Today on the Learn to Fly Blog, we’d like to share some information on ASA’s next generation CX-3 Flight Computer, available this November. The CX-3 is an excellent companion in the cockpit, on the tarmac, or the ground school classroom, whether you need to make a rate of descent calculation or plan a flight. You can even use it when you take your FAA Knowledge exam. Using the latest microchip and display technologies, the CX-3 features make it the most versatile and useful aviation calculator available.

CX-3_HiRes

May be used during FAA and Canadian Knowledge Exams. The CX-3 complies with FAA Order 8080.6 and Advisory Circular (AC) 60-11, “Test Aids and Materials that May be Used by Airman Knowledge Testing Applicants”; therefore you may bring the CX-3 with you to the testing centers for all pilot, mechanic, and dispatcher FAA exams.

Numerous aviation functions. You can calculate everything from true airspeed and Mach number, fuel burn, holding patterns, to headwind/crosswind components, center of gravity (CG), and everything in between. The menu structure provides easy entry, review, and editing within each function. Multiple problems can be solved within one function.

User-friendly. The color LCD screen displays a menu of functions and the inputs and outputs of a selected function, for easy-to-read menus and data displays. The inputs and outputs of each function are separated on the display screen so it’s clear which numbers were entered and which were calculated, along with their corresponding units of measurement. The menu organization reflects how a flight is normally planned and executed. The result is a natural flow from one function to the next with a minimum of keystrokes. To plan a flight, simply work from the menus in sequential order as you fill in your flight plan form.

1_LTFBCX3

Non-volatile memory. All settings including aircraft profile, weight and balance data, trip plan data, values entered by the user, and calculations performed by the device will be retained until the batteries are removed or the user performs a memory reset. Aircraft profiles for multiple aircraft can be created and saved, and imported from or exported to a computer via a micro-usb port.

Ergonomic design. The CX-3 features a simple keyboard and slim design. The non-slip cover will protect your computer inside the flight bag and it fits on the backside of the unit for easy storage while in use.

Unit conversions. The CX-3 has 12 unit conversions: Distance, Speed, Duration, Temperature, Pressure, Volume, Rate, Weight, Rate of Climb/Descent, Angle of Climb/Descent, Torque, and Angle. These 12 conversion categories contain 38 different conversion units for over 100 functions. Unit conversions can be performed during any step in a calculation.

3_LTFBCX3

Timers and clocks. The CX-3 has two timers: a stopwatch that counts up and a countdown timer. The stopwatch can be used to keep track of elapsed time or to determine the time required to fly a known distance. The countdown timer can be used as a reminder to switch fuel tanks, or to determine the missed approach point on a non-precision instrument approach. An internal clock continues running even when the flight computer is turned off. UTC and local time can be displayed, and the time can be set with UTC, destination or local time.

Interactive functions. The CX-3 is designed so the functions can be used together. You can perform “chain” calculations where the answer to a preceding problem is automatically entered in subsequent problems. Standard mathematical calculations and conversions can be performed within each aviation function.

Up to date. Check often for new CX-3 updates online at www.asa2fly.com/CX3. Firmware updates and user-data backups are made easy with a micro-usb port to connect the CX-3 to computer.

4_LTFBCX3

The CX-3 will begin shipping in November. Check in with your local FBO, favorite online retailer, or ASA for availability. On Thursday, our CFI will share some sample calculations and tips on using the CX-3.

[del.icio.us] [Digg] [Facebook] [Furl] [Google] [Reddit] [StumbleUpon] [Twitter] [Email]


Read more about ASA...

CFI Brief: It’s Getting Hot in Here.

Today, I would like to recap Monday’s post on the aircraft engine cooling system and go over some typical questions you will likely see on your FAA Private Pilot knowledge test. First off, we learned about the effects of operating with an excessively high aircraft engine temperature and that it can lead to loss of power, excessive oil consumption, detonation, and serious engine damage. Neither of which are ideal situations when 6,000 in the air. That is why a thorough understanding of the aircraft engine and cooling system is required knowledge for any pilot. Understanding how your engine cools will help you to prevent operating outside of normal temperature ranges.

Most light aircraft engines are cooled externally by air. For internal cooling and lubrication, an engine depends on circulating oil. Engine lubricating oil not only prevents direct metal-to-metal contact of moving parts, it also absorbs and dissipates part of the engine heat produced by internal combustion. If the engine oil level is too low, an abnormally high engine oil temperature indication may result.

On the ground or in the air, excessively high engine temperatures can cause excessive oil consumption, loss of power, and possible permanent internal engine damage.

If the engine oil temperature and cylinder head temperature gauges have exceeded their normal operating range, or if the pilot suspects that the engine (with a fixed-pitch propeller) is detonating during climb-out, the pilot may have been operating with either too much power and the mixture set too lean, using fuel of too low a grade, or operating the engine with not enough oil in it. Reducing the rate of climb and increasing airspeed, enriching the fuel mixture, or retarding the throttle will help cool an overheating engine. Also, rapid throttle operation can induce detonation, which may detune the crankshaft.

The most important rule to remember in the event of a power failure after becoming airborne is to maintain safe airspeed. Now let’s go ahead and take a look at some sample knowledge test questions complete with explanations.

Excessively high engine temperatures, either in the air or on the ground, will
A. increase fuel consumption and may increase power due to the increased heat.
B. result in damage to heat-conducting hoses and warping of cylinder cooling fans.
C. cause loss of power, excessive oil consumption, and possible permanent internal engine damage.

High engine temperatures can lead to loss of power, excessive oil consumption, detonation, and serious engine damage.

If the engine oil temperature and cylinder head temperature gauges have exceeded their normal operating range, the pilot may have been operating with
A. the mixture set too rich
B. higher-than-normal oil pressure.
C. too much power and with the mixture set too lean.

Excessively high engine temperatures can result from insufficient cooling caused by too lean a mixture, too low a grade of fuel, low oil, or insufficient airflow over the engine.

Answer (A) is incorrect because a richer fuel mixture will normally cool an engine. Answer (B) is incorrect because high oil pressure does not cause high engine temperatures.

For internal cooling, reciprocating aircraft engines are especially dependent on
A. a properly functioning thermostat.
B. air flowing over the exhaust manifold.
C. the circulation of lubricating oil.

Oil, used primarily to lubricate the moving parts of the engine, also cools the internal parts of the engine as it circulates.

Answer (A) is incorrect because most air-cooled aircraft engines do not have thermostats. Answer (B) is incorrect because, although air-cooling is important, internal cooling is more reliant on oil circulation. Air cools the cylinders, not the exhaust manifold.

An abnormally high engine oil temperature indication may be caused by
A. the oil level being too low.
B. operating with a too high viscosity oil.
C. operating with an excessively rich mixture.

Oil, used primarily to lubricate the moving parts of the engine, also helps reduce engine temperature by removing some of the heat from the cylinders. Therefore, if the oil level is too low, the transfer of heat to less oil would cause the oil temperature to rise.

Answer (B) is incorrect because the higher the viscosity, the better the lubricating and cooling capability of the oil. Answer (C) is incorrect because a rich fuel/air mixture usually decreases engine temperature.

What action can a pilot take to aid in cooling an engine that is overheating during a climb?
A. Reduce rate of climb and increase airspeed.
B. Reduce climb speed and increase RPM.
C. Increase climb speed and increase RPM.

To avoid excessive cylinder head temperatures, a pilot can open the cowl flaps, increase airspeed, enrich the mixture, or reduce power. Any of these procedures will aid in reducing the engine temperature. Establishing a shallower climb (increasing airspeed) increases the airflow through the cooling system, reducing high engine temperatures.

Answer (B) is incorrect because reducing airspeed hinders cooling, and increasing RPM will further increase engine temperature. Answer (C) is incorrect because increasing RPM will increase engine temperature.

[del.icio.us] [Digg] [Facebook] [Furl] [Google] [Reddit] [StumbleUpon] [Twitter] [Email]


Read more about CFI...

Aircraft Systems: Engine Cooling Systems

Today’s post is excerpted from Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge.

The burning fuel within the cylinders produces intense heat, most of which is expelled through the exhaust system. Much of the remaining heat, however, must be removed, or at least dissipated, to prevent the engine from overheating. Otherwise, the extremely high engine temperatures can lead to loss of power, excessive oil consumption, detonation, and serious engine damage.

While the oil system is vital to the internal cooling of the engine, an additional method of cooling is necessary for the engine’s external surface. Most small aircraft are air cooled, although some are liquid cooled.

Air cooling is accomplished by air flowing into the engine compartment through openings in front of the engine cowling. Baffles route this air over fins attached to the engine cylinders, and other parts of the engine, where the air absorbs the engine heat. Expulsion of the hot air takes place through one or more openings in the lower, aft portion of the engine cowling.

7-19

Outside the air aids in cooling the engine.

The outside air enters the engine compartment through an inlet behind the propeller hub. Baffles direct it to the hottest parts of the engine, primarily the cylinders, which have fins that increase the area exposed to the airflow.

The air cooling system is less effective during ground operations, takeoffs, go-arounds, and other periods of highpower, low-airspeed operation. Conversely, high-speed descents provide excess air and can shock cool the engine, subjecting it to abrupt temperature fluctuations.

Operating the engine at higher than its designed temperature can cause loss of power, excessive oil consumption, and detonation. It will also lead to serious permanent damage, such as scoring the cylinder walls, damaging the pistons and rings, and burning and warping the valves. Monitoring the flight deck engine temperature instruments aids in avoiding high operating temperature.

Under normal operating conditions in aircraft not equipped with cowl flaps, the engine temperature can be controlled by changing the airspeed or the power output of the engine. High engine temperatures can be decreased by increasing the airspeed and/or reducing the power.

The oil temperature gauge gives an indirect and delayed indication of rising engine temperature, but can be used for determining engine temperature if this is the only means available.

Most aircraft are equipped with a cylinder-head temperature gauge that indicates a direct and immediate cylinder temperature change. This instrument is calibrated in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit and is usually color coded with a green arc to indicate the normal operating range. A red line on the instrument indicates maximum allowable cylinder head temperature.

To avoid excessive cylinder head temperatures, increase airspeed, enrich the fuel-air mixture, and/or reduce power. Any of these procedures help to reduce the engine temperature. On aircraft equipped with cowl flaps, use the cowl flap positions to control the temperature. Cowl flaps are hinged covers that fit over the opening through which the hot air is expelled. If the engine temperature is low, the cowl flaps can be closed, thereby restricting the flow of expelled hot air and increasing engine temperature. If the engine temperature is high, the cowl flaps can be opened to permit a greater flow of air through the system, thereby decreasing the engine temperature.

[del.icio.us] [Digg] [Facebook] [Furl] [Google] [Reddit] [StumbleUpon] [Twitter] [Email]


Read more about ASA...

CFI Brief: The Instrument Approach Procedure Chart

On Monday, we learned about the Instrument Landing System and it’s components. Today, I would like to further our discussion and talk about Instrument Approach Procedure Charts. These charts are what depict to pilots how to fly a particular approach into an airport. Many instrument approaches will require the use of an ILS or it’s Localizer component.

With use of the depicted information on an IAP chart a pilot will be assured of terrain and obstruction clearance and runway or airport alignment during approach for landing.

The IAP chart may be divided into four distinct areas: the Plan View, showing the route to the airport; the Profile View, showing altitude and descent information; the Minimums Section, showing approach categories, minimum altitudes, and visibility requirements; and the Airport diagram, showing runway alignments, runway lights, and approach lighting systems.

  1. The Plan View is that portion of the IAP chart depicted at “A” in the figure below. Atop the IAP chart is the procedure identifications which will depict the A/C equipment necessary to execute the approach, the runway alignment, the name of the airport, the city and state of airport location (See Figure Area #1). An ILS approach, for example, requires the aircraft to have an operable localizer, glide slope, and marker beacon receiver. An LOC/DME approach would require the aircraft to be equipped with both a localizer receiver and distance measuring equipment (DME). If the approach is aligned within 30° of the centerline, the runway number listed at the top of the approach chart means straight-in landing minimums are published for that runway. If the approach course is not within 30° of the runway centerline, an alphabetic code will be assigned to tie IAP identification (for example, NDB-A, VOR-C), indicating that only circle-to-land minimums are published. This would not preclude a pilot from landing straight-in, however, if the pilot has the runway in sight in sufficient time to make a normal approach for landing, and has been cleared to land.

The IAP plan view will list in either upper corner, the approach control, tower, and other communications frequencies a pilot will need. Some listings may include a direction (for example, North 120.2, South 120.8).

The IAP plan view may contain a Minimum Sector Altitude (MSA) diagram. The diagram shows the altitude that would provide obstacle clearance of at least 1,000 feet in the defined sector while within 25 NM of the primary omnidirectional NAVAID; usually a VOR or NDB (See Figure Area #2).

An IAP may include a procedural track around a DME arc to intercept a radial. An arc-to-radial altitude restriction applies while established on that segment of the IAP.

  1. The Profile View is that portion of the IAP chart depicted at “B” in the Figure. The profile view shows a side view of the procedures. This view includes the minimum altitude and maximum distance for the procedure turn, altitudes over prescribed fixes, distances between fixes, and the missed approach procedure.
  2. The Minimums Section is that portion of the IAP chart depicted at “C” in the Figure. The categories listed on instrument approach charts are based on aircraft speed. The speed is 1.3 times VS0 at maximum certificated gross landing weight.
  3. The Aerodrome Data is that portion of the IAP chart which includes an airport diagram, and depicts runway alignments, runway lights, approach lights, and other important information, such as the touchdown zone elevation (TDZE) and airport elevation (See figure area “D”).

TP-I-08-02

Take a look a the IAP Chart Figure below and see if you can determine the following. Answers will be posted in the comments section.

  1. What is the minimum equipment required for this approach?
  2. What are the noted minimum safe altitudes (MSA)?
  3. What is the decision altitude (DA) if conducting a straight in approach?

instrument_179

[del.icio.us] [Digg] [Facebook] [Furl] [Google] [Reddit] [StumbleUpon] [Twitter] [Email]


Read more about CFI...

IFR: The Instrument Landing System (ILS)

Today, we’re featuring an excerpt from The Pilot’s Manual Volume Three: Instrument Flying. In A Pilot’s Accident Review, author John Lowery recommends that “after about 100 hours of flying with a new private certificate it’s important to the new pilot’s safety and longevity to begin training for an instrument rating.” If you’re a private pilot curious about the IFR rating, a great place to start is our CFI’s “An Introduction to the IFR Rating” as well as other IFR category posts we’ve shared here on the L2FB.

The instrument landing system is known as the ILS. It enables a suitably equipped airplane to make a precision approach to a particular runway. A precision approach is one in which electronic glide slope guidance, as well as tracking guidance, is given. Each ILS is known by the airport and runway it serves, for example, the Lafayette ILS Rwy 10, in Indiana.

The instrument landing system has four main elements:

  1. the localizer, which provides course guidance along the extended centerline of the runway (guidance in azimuth left or right of the extended centerline);
  2. the glide slope, which provides vertical guidance toward the runway touchdown point, usually at a slope of approximately 3° to the horizontal, or 1:20 (vertical guidance above or below the glide slope);
  3. marker beacons, which provide accurate range fixes along the approach path (usually an outer marker and a middle marker) are provided; and
  4. approach lights, VASI (visual approach slope indicator), and other lights (touchdown zone lighting, runway lights, etc.) to assist in transitioning from instrument to visual flight.

There may be supplementary NAVAIDs available, including:

  • a compass locator (NDB); and
  • DME.
The instrument landing system.

The instrument landing system. (Click to view full size.)

The outer marker may be replaced as a range marker on some ILS’s by a compass locator, a DME distance, or an ASR or PAR radar position from ATC. The middle marker, where more accuracy is required, may be replaced as a range marker on some ILS’s by a compass locator or PAR radar position from ATC (but not by a DME distance or ASR radar position). These range markers provide you with an accurate distance fix along the localizer.

A co-located compass locator and outer marker will appear on the approach chart as “LOM.” A co-located compass locator and middle marker will appear on the approach chart as “LMM.”

The ideal flight path on an ILS approach, where the localizer plane and the glide slope plane intersect, is referred to as the glide path. The word glide is really a misnomer carried over from earlier days, since modern airplanes make powered approaches down the glide path, rather than glide approaches. However, the term glide path is still used.

Since ILS approaches will often be made in conditions of poor visibility or at night, there is always associated visual information that can be used once the pilot becomes “visual” (has the runway environment in sight). This may include approach lights leading toward the runway, runway lights, touchdown lights, and centerline lights. Lighting is indispensable for night operations, but it can also be invaluable during daylight hours in conditions of restricted visibility.

There may also be a VASI situated near the touchdown zone to provide visual slope guidance during the latter stages of the approach. This, and other visual information, will assist you in maintaining a stable descent path toward the runway, where you can complete the landing.

The ILS is selected in the cockpit on the NAV/COM radio. Its cockpit display is usually the same instrument as for the VOR except that, in addition to the vertical localizer needle (CDI) that moves left and right for course guidance, there is a second needle or indicators that come into view. It is horizontal, and is able to move up and down to represent the position of the glide slope relative to the airplane. Some ILS indicators have needles that are hinged and move like wipers, others have needles that move rectilinearly. The airplane may be thought of as the center dot, and the intersection of the needles as the relative position of the glide path.

ILS cockpit displays.

ILS cockpit displays.

We’ll have more to share on the ILS, and much more on IFR, in future Monday posts.

[del.icio.us] [Digg] [Facebook] [Furl] [Google] [Reddit] [StumbleUpon] [Twitter] [Email]


Read more about ASA...

You may want to put some text here

E-mail:

Subscribe
Unsubscribe

Get this Wordpress newsletter widget
for newsletter software