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CFI Brief: FAR/AIM

Moving? Change of address? Did you know that that there is a regulation, 14 CFR §61.60 to be exact, that states the holder of a pilot, flight instructor, or ground instructor certificate who has made a change in permanent mailing address may not, after 30 days from that date, exercise the privileges of the certificate unless the holder has notified in writing the FAA, Airman Certification Branch?

That’s right, if you have a change of address you are required to notify the FAA within 30 days! There is even an FAA knowledge test question on this topic that may look something like this:

Q: If a certificated pilot changes permanent mailing address and fails to notify the FAA Airmen Certification Branch of the new address, the pilot is entitled to exercise the privileges of the pilot certificate for a period of only
A—30 days after the date of the move.
B—60 days after the date of the move.
C—90 days after the date of the move.

Ever wonder what the definition of night is? It’s important to know to avoid getting caught unprepared in the dark, but also because you could see questions relating to night on your FAA knowledge test. In 14 CFR §1.1, the definition of night is stated as the time between the end of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight, as published in the Air Almanac, converted to local time.

The above information and more can be found in the FAR/AIM. What exactly is the FAR/AIM you ask? Think of it as two separate publications in one, starting with the Federal Aviation Regulations (that’s the FAR part) and ending with the Aeronautical Information Manual (the AIM part).

ASA's 2015 FAR/AIM

ASA’s 2015 FAR/AIM

Think of the FAR as a book of rules and regulations. In it you will find everything from minimum hours required to become a private pilot to maximum speed allowed in class Bravo airspace. Aviation regulations are included in title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR). Within 14 CFR, the FAR’s are divided into parts and further broken down into sections; take for example our change of address regulation above. This can be found in Part 61 Section 60 and will look like this: 14 CFR §61.60. Some parts that are of particular interest to all pilots include:

14 CFR Part 1 contains definitions and abbreviations of many terms commonly used in aviation. This is where I found the term “night” as discussed above.

14 CFR Part 61, entitled “Certification: Pilots, Flight Instructors and Ground Instructors,” prescribes the requirements for issuing pilot and flight instructor certificates and ratings, the conditions of issue, and the privileges and limitations of those certificates and ratings.

14 CFR Part 91, entitled “General Operating and Flight Rules,” describes rules governing the operation of aircraft (with certain exceptions) within the United States.

The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has established rules and requirements for notification and reporting of aircraft accidents and incidents. These are contained in NTSB Part 830.

The second half as we said is the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) which is designed to provide basic flight information and air traffic control procedures within the United States National Airspace System (NAS). It will list the fundamentals required to fly in the NAS and contain items of interest to pilots concerning health and medical facts, airport lighting, signs and other visual aids, radio communications phraseology and techniques, factors affecting flight safety (like weather and wake turbulence), and information on safety, accident, and hazard reporting. The AIM is divided into 10 chapters with each chapter containing multiple sections and parts. Say for example I wanted to find information on Traffic Patterns, I see in the glossary Traffic Pattern is listed under 4-3-3. Breaking that down it would be Chapter 4 Air Traffic Control, Section 3 Airport Operations, and Part 3 Traffic Patterns. The AIM concludes with the Pilot/Controller Glossary.

ASA publishes a copy of the FAR/AIM yearly and provides periodic updates throughout the year. The regulations change via the Federal Register, which is a document published every weekday. The AIM changes twice a year. ASA tracks FAA changes daily and provides an update when regulations and AIM changes affect pilot operations. Be sure to sign up for this free update service at www.asa2fly.com/farupdate. A current copy of the FAR/AIM is a MUST in every pilot’s flight bag.

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Regulations: Privileges and Limitations

A good starting point for the regulations you must know as a pilot can be found in Bob Gardner’s textbook The Complete Private Pilot. The definitive compilation of United States regulations for aviators is the FAR/AIM.

Today’s post breaks down 14 CFR 61.113 Private pilot privilages and limitations; pilot-in-command. Here is a link to the regulation to consider before reading the rest of this post!

14 CFR 61.113 Private pilot privileges and limitations; pilot-in-command. Private pilots may not accept compensation for flying; they are allowed to share the direct operating expenses of the flight with their passengers (fuel, oil, rental charges). Beware—your insurance might not cover a flight for which a charge is made. Private pilots are allowed to fly in connection with their employment if they are not being paid solely for their piloting activities. For instance, you can fly some clients over some property they are considering as a part of your duties in real estate, but you cannot be asked by your employer to transport customers on flights unrelated to real estate if your employer reimburses you. You, as a private pilot, may carry paying passengers on a flight for a charitable organization if the passengers have contributed to the organization. Approved charities are very narrowly defined by the IRS; the airplane must meet commercial maintenance requirements (Part 135), you must have logged 500 hours of flight time, and you must meet drug testing program requirements. You may demonstrate airplanes as an airplane salesperson after you have logged 200 hours of flight time as pilot-in-command.

The question of sharing expenses has resulted in some legal decisions. If you are flying somewhere and want to take someone along to share expenses but would go anyway if no passenger could be found, that is acceptable. If the only reason you are taking a trip is that someone will share expenses with you, that is considered compensation. If you rent airplanes to take your friends on trips just to build time, trips that you would not take without their financial contribution, you are flirting with a violation of this regulation.

The FAA calls this principle “Commonality of Purpose.” You and your passengers must have a common purpose in making the flight; if you would not have made the flight for your own purposes, its legality is questionable.

We will be back Thursday with a CFI Brief to show you how you might encounter this in your flight training and during your FAA exam.

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CFI Brief: Interpreting the ASI

The airspeed indicator (ASI) is an important component of the pitot-static instruments. As you can imagine, there are numerous speeds for each aircraft. It can be tough sometimes to remember all those V-speeds, particularly if you are transitioning between multiple aircraft with different performance characteristics.

The ASA Dictionary of Aeronautical Terms by Dale Crane defines V-speeds as a series of designators used by the FAA and listed in 14 CFR 1 to describe certain flight conditions. For example, the aircraft’s stalling speed, or minimum steady flight speed at which the airplane is controllable, is designated as VS. The ASI is designed to allow for easy reference of certain airspeed limitations that are important to the safe operation of the aircraft. This is accomplished by using a standard color-coded marking system and is required on all ASI installed in aircraft weighing less than 12,500 pounds manufactured after 1954. Let’s break it down so you understand fully how to interpret the ASI.

asi_markings

WHITE ARC—This is known as the flap operating range, or the speed at which the aircraft can be flown with full flaps. The lower limit represents VSO, the stalling speed or minimum steady flight speed in the landing configuration. The upper limit represents VFE, the maximum speed with the flaps extended.

GREEN ARC—Normal operating range of the aircraft, the speeds at which most flying occurs. Lower limit represents VS1, the stalling speed or minimum steady flight speed in a specified configuration. Upper limit represents VNO, the maximum structural cruising speed.

YELLOW ARC—This is the caution range, flight at these speeds should only be conducted in smooth air.

RED RADIAL LINE—Operating above this speed is prohibited, my cause structural damage or failure.

Not all V-speed can be found on the ASI. Other speeds important to flight may be found on placards within the aircraft, in the aircraft Pilots Operating Handbook (POH), or in the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM). It’s important to understand how to interpret the ASI color-coded system and know what each limit represents. The FAA knowledge exam includes questions on this information.

1. What does the red line on an airspeed indicator represent?
A—Maneuvering speed.
B—Turbulent or rough-air speed.
C—Never-exceed speed.

2. (Refer to Figure 4.) Which marking identifies the never-exceed speed?
A—Upper limit of the green arc.
B—Upper limit of the white arc.
C—The red radial line.

3. (Refer to Figure 4.) Which color identifies the power-off stalling speed in a specified configuration?
A—Upper limit of the green arc.
B—Upper limit of the white arc.
C—Lower limit of the green arc.

private_4

Use this figure to answer the questions.

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Flight Instruments: Blocked Pitot System

Safely flying in any aircraft depends upon not only a pilot’s ability to interpret and operate flight instruments, but also to recognize when an instrument is malfunctioning. This week, we’ll take a look at common issues associated with pitot-static flight instruments: the airspeed indicator (ASI), altimeter, and vertical speed indicator (VSI). This content comes from the cornerstone FAA manual Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge.

The pitot system can become blocked completely or only partially if the pitot tube drain hole remains open. If the pitot tube becomes blocked and its associated drain hole remains clear, ram air no longer is able to enter the pitot system. Air already in the system vents through the drain hole, and the remaining pressure drops to ambient (outside) air pressure. Under these circumstances, the ASI reading decreases to zero, because the ASI senses no difference between ram and static air pressure. The ASI no longer operates since dynamic pressure can not enter the pitot tube opening. Static pressure is able to equalize on both sides since the pitot drain hole is still open. The apparent loss of airspeed is not usually instantaneous but happens very quickly. [Figure 1]

Figure 1. A blocked pitot tube, but clear drain hole.

Figure 1. A blocked pitot tube, but clear drain hole.

If both the pitot tube opening and the drain hole should become clogged simultaneously, then the pressure in the pitot tube is trapped. No change is noted on the airspeed indication should the airspeed increase or decrease. If the static port is unblocked and the aircraft should change altitude, then a change is noted on the ASI. The change is not related to a change in airspeed but a change in static pressure. The total pressure in the pitot tube does not change due to the blockage; however, the static pressure will change.

Because airspeed indications rely upon both static and dynamic pressure together, the blockage of either of these systems affects the ASI reading. Remember that the ASI has a diaphragm in which dynamic air pressure is entered. Behind this diaphragm is a reference pressure called static pressure that comes from the static ports. The diaphragm pressurizes against this static pressure and as a result changes the airspeed indication via levers and indicators. [Figure 2]

Figure 2. Blocked pitot system with clear static system.

Figure 2. Blocked pitot system with clear static system.

For example, take an aircraft and slow it down to zero knots at given altitude. If the static port (providing static pressure) and the pitot tube (providing dynamic pressure) are both unobstructed, the following claims can be made:

1. The ASI would be zero.

2. There must be a relationship between both dynamic and static pressure. At zero speed, dynamic pressure and static pressure are the same: static air pressure.

3. Because both dynamic and static air pressure are equal at zero speed with increased speed, dynamic pressure must include two components: static pressure and dynamic pressure.

It can be inferred that airspeed indication must be based upon a relationship between these two pressures, and indeed it is. An ASI uses the static pressure as a reference pressure and as a result, the ASI’s case is kept at this pressure behind the diaphragm. On the other hand, the dynamic pressure through the pitot tube is connected to a highly sensitive diaphragm within the ASI case. Because an aircraft in zero motion (regardless of altitude) results in a zero airspeed, the pitot tube always provides static pressure in addition to dynamic pressure.

Therefore, the airspeed indication is the result of two pressures: the pitot tube static and dynamic pressure within the diaphragm as measured against the static pressure in case. What does this mean if the pitot tube is obstructed? If the aircraft were to descend, the pressure in the pitot system including the diaphragm would remain constant. It is clogged and the diaphragm is at a single pressure. But as the descent is made, the static pressure would increase against the diaphragm causing it to compress thereby resulting in an indication of decreased airspeed. Conversely, if the aircraft were to climb, the static pressure would decrease allowing the diaphragm to expand, thereby showing an indication of greater airspeed. [Figure 2]

The pitot tube may become blocked during flight due to visible moisture. Some aircraft may be equipped with pitot heat for flight in visible moisture. Consult the AFM/POH for specific procedures regarding the use of pitot heat.

We’ll continue with this theme on Thursday and, as always, there will be a test question!

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CFI Brief: AvGas

AvGas, or “aviation spirit” as it is affectionately referred to in the United Kingdom, is the topic of discussion today. Aviation gasoline (AvGas) is derived from the same principles as motor gasoline found in car engines although with a much higher performance requirement. Why you ask? Well the reason is simple: aircraft engines are typically required to operate in excess of 90% power for extended periods of time (takeoff, climb-out, etc.), while a car engine is typically only operating at around 20-40% power. To increase the octane levels and performance values several additives are added to AvGas the most commonly known of these additives is lead. The addition of lead to gas will allow a piston aircraft engine to operate at a much higher compression due to the resistance against detonation in the engine cylinders. The higher the octane level, the more pressure the fuel can withstand without detonating, creating more power. Using an other-than-specific fuel containing a lower lead content in your aircraft engine will cause pre-mature detonation and a significant decrease in power output.  Included in the list of additives to aviation fuels are colored dyes, these dyes are added to assist in differentiating each fuel grade. In addition to the fuel color itself the color coding system noted below extends to aircraft decals and fuel handling equipment located at airports.

Aviation fuel color-coding system.

Aviation fuel color-coding system.

The grade of AvGas most commonly used is referred to as 100LL (low lead) and can be found at most airports worldwide. This grade of gas contains anywhere from 1.2-2.0 mL per gallon of lead and is the low lead version of 100/130 grade AvGas which can contain up to 4.0 mL per gallon of lead. It is important to never use a grade of fuel lower then that specified by the aircraft engine manufacturer. If anything, you should choose the next higher grade. It is important to note that “Jet fuel” is NOT a higher-grade version of AvGas – you cannot use Jet Fuel for engines requiring AvGas, nor can you use AvGas for engines requiring Jet Fuel.  However, always refer to the aircraft engine manufactures recommendations. Usable fuel grades will typically be listed in the aircraft’s Pilot Operating Handbook or Information Manual.

The FAA knowledge test will contain questions on the subjects of fuel and detonation. To help you prepare, I have included two questions that you are likely to see. For a full sampling of fuel related questions you can refer to our ASA Test Prep Book or Prepware Software for Private Pilot.

1. If the grade of fuel used in an aircraft engine is lower than specified for the engine, it will most likely cause
A—a mixture of the fuel and air that is not uniform in all cylinders.
B—lower cylinder head temperatures.
C—detonation.

2. Detonation occurs in a reciprocating aircraft engine when
A—the spark plugs are fouled or shorted out or the wiring is defective.
B—hot spots in the combustion chamber ignite the fuel/air mixture in advance of normal ignition.
C—the unburned charge in the cylinders explodes instead of burning normally.

Aviation fuel is the only transportation fuel still containing lead. Concerns over lead emissions have caused the industry to seek alternative fuels, for information on the progress and research of alternative aviation fuels visit the FAA web page below.

https://www.faa.gov/about/initiatives/avgas/  

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Aircraft Systems: Propping the Plane

This week we’re thinking about aircraft systems. Here’s an excerpt from William Kershner‘s textbook The Student Pilot’s Flight Manual.

Nearly all planes have starters these days, but the following is presented for your possible use. If you plan on doing any propping (cranking the propeller by hand), you should receive instruction from someone with experience; it’s an extremely risky business. Another rule is to never prop an airplane without a competent pilot or mechanic, who is familiar with the particular airplane, at the controls. Propping a plane without a competent operator inside is asking for great excitement, tire tracks on your sports jacket, and loss of an airplane.

The idea of starting is the same as with an electric starter except you have manpower instead of electricity turning the prop. There’ll be a little more conversation in this case.

Man out front: “OFF AND CRACKED!” (Meaning switch off and throttle cracked.)

You: (After checking to make sure that the fuel valve is ON, the mags are OFF, and the throttle is cracked) “OFF AND CRACKED.”

Man out front: (After pulling the prop through several times to get the engine ready for start) “BRAKES AND CONTACT!”

You: Check the brakes and say, “BRAKES AND CONTACT,” before turning the switch on. Notice that you’re giving the benefit of the doubt in all cases.

He pulls the prop again and the engine starts. If in hot weather the engine loads up and doesn’t start, the propper will have to clear the cylinders of the excess fuel. If he trusts you, he may say, “Keep it hot and give me half,” meaning for you to leave the switch on and open the throttle halfway, adding that you are expected to hold brakes firmly and pull the throttle back as soon as the engine starts. He may push against the prop hub to see if you are holding the brakes, will then pull the prop through until the engine starts, and will be very, very unhappy if you forget to pull the throttle back and are not holding any brakes. One student chased a mechanic with an airplane for 50 yards one day. Of course, soon afterward the mechanic chased the student with a wrench.

In most cases with students, the person propping will say, “SWITCH OFF AND THROTTLE OPEN,” and you will make sure the switch is off and the throttle is open. When the plane is ready to start, the propper will say, “THROTTLE CLOSED, BRAKES AND CONTACT.” You’ll close the throttle (he can hear it close from the outside), say, “THROTTLE CLOSED, BRAKES AND CONTACT,” hold the brakes, and turn the switch on.

The whole idea in starting an airplane is safety. That prop is a meat cleaver just itching to go to work on somebody. Don’t you be the one who causes it to happen, and don’t be the one that it happens to.

“CONTACT!” may sound dramatic, but unlike “SWITCH ON!” which, on a noisy ramp may sound like “SWITCH OFF!” there is only one meaning to the word (the magnetos are, or are to be, hot). Besides, “CONTACT!” evokes memories of biplanes and barnstorming, helmets, and goggles. (Great!)

When You’re Swinging the Prop
Always figure the switch is on, no matter what the person in the cockpit says. Push against the prop hub to see if the pilot is holding the brakes. He or she may be an old buddy but having no brakes can do you a lot of damage here, so don’t take any chances.

Before you start to prop the plane, look at the ground under the prop. Is there oil, water, or gravel that might cause your feet to slip out from under you? If the ground doesn’t look right, then move the plane — better a tired back than a broken one.

You: “OFF AND CRACKED.”

Cockpit: (After checking) “OFF AND CRACKED.”

A lot of nonpilots think that the prop is turned backward and “wound up” and released, but this is wrong. You will turn the prop in its normal direction—that is, clockwise as seen from the cockpit, counterclockwise as seen by you when standing in front of the plane. You’re doing the same thing a starter does—turning the prop over until the engine starts. (Your car starter doesn’t turn the engine backward and then let go to make it start.)

Put both hands close together on the prop about halfway between the hub and the tip (Figure 1). Don’t wrap your fingers around the trailing edge; just have enough of the tips there to pull the prop through, because if the engine should kick back, your fingers would suffer. (You may also be fired into orbit if you hang on tight enough.) Stand at about a 45-degree angle to the prop; this should have your right shoulder pointing in the general direction of the hub. Keep both feet on the ground but have most of your weight on the right foot. As you pull the propeller through, step back on the left foot. This moves you back away from the prop each time. Listen for a sucking sound that tells you the engine is getting fuel. This will be learned from experience; an open or half-open throttle does not have this sound.

Figure 1. Propping the airplane.

Figure 1. Propping the airplane.

When you think the engine is ready, step back and say, “BRAKES AND CONTACT.” After the acknowledgment from the cockpit, step forward and give the prop a sharp snap. Then step backward and to one side as the engine starts.

The starting problems you may encounter have already been discussed.

Don’t stand too far from the prop. This causes you to lean into it each time you pull it through.

If the prop is not at the right position for you to get a good snap, have the person in the cockpit turn the switch off. Then move the prop carefully to the position required. As far as you are concerned, the switch is always on.

As always, check back on Thursday for more from our CFI!

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CFI Brief: Forward vs. Aft CG

Happy New Year! After a great holiday it’s time to get back in the grind and what better way to start 2015 off then with a discussion on stability! So just what is stability? In the sense we are discussing, stability is the inherent ability of an airplane to return, or not return, to its original flight condition after being disturbed by an outside force. Obviously it’s important for an aircraft to possess a degree of stability and each aircraft will differ in some manner at the level of stability it possesses. A Cessna 172 for example is designed with a much higher level of stability then per se an F-16.

We as pilots actually have the ability to manipulate the level of stability that the aircraft displays particularly the longitudinal stability. This is done by changing the center of gravity with respect to the center of lift. To keep it simple, loading the aircraft with a forward CG within limits will increase the aircrafts stability as opposed to loading an aircraft with a more aft (rearward) CG within limits of course will decrease stability. Now, there are benefits and drawbacks to both. A forward CG with the increase in stability will make it easier to recover from a stall, however moving the CG forward will also increase drag and with drag comes a reduction in cruise speeds and fuel efficiency. When you start loading an aircraft with a more aft CG you start to lose some of that stability and it may become more difficult to recover from a stall, but this will also decrease drag resulting in higher cruise speeds and better fuel efficiency. With the types of training aircraft you are most likely flying these differences will be minimal as long as the CG stays within the designed limits set by the manufacturer.

So is it better to have a forward CG or aft CG? Well there is really no set answer to that question; it’s up to you as the pilot-in-command to base your answer off the type of operations you will be conducting for that flight. Although what’s important is understanding the differences of how each will affect the aircraft. The FAA Private Pilot Knowledge Test will have questions relating to this topic for example:

Loading an airplane to the most aft CG will cause the airplane to be
A—less stable at all speeds.
B—less stable at slow speeds, but more stable at high speeds.
C—less stable at high speeds, but more stable at low speeds.

Loading in a tail-heavy condition can reduce the airplane’s ability to recover from stalls and spins. Tail-heavy loading also produces very light stick forces at all speeds, making it easy for the pilot to inadvertently overstress the airplane. The correct answer is C.

Effect of CG on airplane stability.

Effect of CG on airplane stability.

Under what operating conditions might it be be most beneficial to have the aircraft loaded with a forward CG? Feel free to share your thoughts in the comments section. Remember always keep that CG within the design limits!

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Aerodynamics: Stability

This week, we’ll take a look at another aerodynamics topic: stability. Bob Gardner has this introduction in his textbook The Complete Private Pilot.

The three axes of control pass through the center of gravity. How the designer has related the centers of lift or pressure to the center of gravity affects the stability of the airplane. An inherently stable air-plane requires little effort to control, but is slow to react to maneuvering forces; as stability is decreased, it will react more quickly but require constant attention. Aerobatic airplanes and airliners represent the extremes of stability.

Your airplane is designed to be stable around the yaw (vertical) axis by placing the tail surfaces away from the center of gravity. If you are in straight and level flight and depress the right rudder pedal, the nose will swing to the right, but will return very quickly to the original position when pressure is released. This is called “streamlining”—if no pressure is exerted on a control surface it will align itself with the airstream. (Do this experiment without passengers on board; it’s unsettling for those in the back seat!)

Stability around the longitudinal axis is provided by dihedral, the upward slant of the wings from their roots to the wing tips (Figure 1). If the airplane is disturbed from straight-and-level flight by a wing being lowered, the descending wing will be at a greater angle of attack than the rising wing. The resulting increase in lift on the lowered wing will result in the wings leveling themselves. This built-in leveling effect makes small bank angles more difficult to sustain than larger bank angles. Almost all airplanes have good short-term lateral stability but poor long-term lateral stability: in the absence of an autopilot, don’t expect hands-off, wings-level flight for long periods of time.

Figure 1. Effect of dihedral.

Figure 1. Effect of dihedral.

Stability around the lateral (pitch) axis is determined by the relationship between the center of gravity and the position of the center of lift, which moves as the downward force on the horizontal stabilizer changes (Figure 2). If you disturb the airplane from straight-and-level flight by pulling back slightly on the control yoke and then releasing it, the airplane will climb briefly until airflow over the horizontal stabilizer diminishes, and then the reduced download on the stabilizer will allow the nose to drop below the horizon. The airspeed will then increase (momentarily) and the increasing download on the horizontal stabilizer created by the added airflow will raise the nose above the horizon. These oscillations will gradually diminish in amplitude until the airplane regains level flight.

Figure 2. Longitudinal stability.

Figure 2. Longitudinal stability.

The designer provides this stability when establishing the permissible limits of center of gravity movement. For every pitch attitude there is a power setting that creates just enough download on the horizontal stabilizer for the airplane to maintain level flight; an increase in power will cause the nose to pitch up, the speed to decrease, and the airplane to climb, and a reduction in power will have the opposite effect. Airplanes with the horizontal stabilizer mounted high on the vertical fin (T-tails) get little or no control effect from power changes because the control surface is above the propeller’s discharge air (propwash). T-tailed airplanes (and all jets) must derive pitch control force solely from the relative wind.

Check back on Thursday for a post from our CFI discussing how you might see this subject appear on an FAA exam.

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Calculating Time En Route on the CX-2

Last week, we showed you how to calculate fuel burn using ASA’s CX-2. This week, we’ll show you how to calculate leg time, or time en route, when given distance and groundspeed using the CX-2 flight computer.

Have a specific problem you want to see worked out on the CX-2 or one of our E6-B flight computers? Let us know!

 

We will be back Monday with more flight training insights. Until then, have a happy New Year!
2014Christmas

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Calculating Fuel Burn on the CX-2

Today’s post is a video is about how to calculate the amount of fuel used when given the fuel burn rate and time en route using our CX-2 flight computer. The CX-2 complies with Order 8080.6- Conduct of Airman Knowledge Tests, so users are free to bring their CX-2 with them to the testing centers for all FAA exams.

 

We will be taking Thursday off, but be sure to check back Monday for another video tutorial on using the CX-2! Happy Holidays!

2014Christmas

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