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Category Archives: IFR

Navigation: Basic Radio Principles

A radio wave is an electromagnetic (EM) wave with frequency characteristics that make it useful. The wave travels long distances through space (in or out of the atmosphere) without losing too much strength. An antenna is used to convert electric current into a radio wave so it can travel through space to the receiving antenna, […]

CFI Brief: Unusual Attitude Recoveries

An unusual attitude in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) is a very unwelcome experience. Many years ago on a commercial cross country training flight with my instructor, I came very close to putting myself in an upset condition, or unusual attitude as it’s commonly referred to. The close call occurred on the last leg of our […]

CFI Brief: Attitude Instrument Flying

The attitude of an aircraft is controlled by movement around its lateral (pitch), longitudinal (roll), and vertical (yaw) axes. In instrument flying, attitude requirements are determined by correctly interpreting the flight instruments. Instruments are grouped as to how they relate to control, function and aircraft performance. Attitude control is discussed in terms of pitch, bank, […]

IFR: Preparation for Flight

Careful planning for a flight on instruments is important. Besides satisfying normal IFR requirements, an instrument pilot flying in clouds or at night must be conscious of high terrain or obstacles that cannot be seen, and ensure that a safe altitude above them is maintained. You must be aware of the danger of icing (both […]

IFR: Instrument Scanning

This week we’re back with more on IFR. Go back and familiarize yourself with the basics we’ve introduced in earlier introductory posts from this year. Today, we’ll look at instrument scanning techniques. This post features text and images from The Pilot’s Manual Volume 3: Instrument Flying. In instrument conditions, when the natural horizon cannot be […]

IFR: Attitude Flying and Applied Instrument Flying

This week we’re back on the topic of IFR flight. If you’ve missed our previous posts touching on IFR, check out these posts: Regulations: “Minimum” IFR Training IFR: Flight at Mid-Level Altitudes CFI Brief: An Introduction to the Instrument Rating CFI Brief: IFR ATC Clearances We’ve also written extensively on the flight instruments themselves too, […]

CFI Brief: IFR ATC Clearances

Last week, I promised you we would begin to expand upon the topic of IFR, particularly clearances. A clearance is simply an authorization from ATC to fly to an airport or fix via an assigned route and altitude. Any operation in controlled airspace under IFR requires the pilot to first obtain a clearance to do […]

CFI Brief: An Introduction to the Instrument Rating

Federal Aviation Regulations Part 61 stipulates that no person may act as pilot-in-command (PIC) of a civil aircraft under IFR or in weather conditions less than the minimums prescribed for visual flight rules (VFR) unless the pilot holds an instrument rating. The rating must be for the category of aircraft to be flown; e.g., airplane […]

IFR: Flight at Mid-Level Altitudes

Today we’re pleased to feature a guest post from CFI and DPE Jason Blair. Check out his previous contributions to the LTFB here. He writes his own blog at JasonBlair.net Learning to fly in IFR conditions requires a great deal of study and skill development. Flying blind isn’t easy! But general instrument flight training typically […]

Regulations: “Minimum” IFR Training

Today’s post is short and sweet but a very important detail in your private pilot training nonetheless! 14 CFR 61.109 Aeronautical Experience lists the required minimum experience needed to apply for a private pilot certificate. §61.109(a)(3) states the required instrument flying time: 3 hours of flight training in a single-engine airplane on the control and […]

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