Human Factors: The Blind Spot

Of all the senses, vision is the most important for safe flight. Most of the things perceived while flying are visual or heavily supplemented by vision. As remarkable and vital as it is, vision is subject to limitations, such as illusions and blind spots. The more a pilot understands about the eyes and how they function, the easier it is to use vision effectively and compensate for potential problems. Today’s post is excerpted from the Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge.

The area where the optic nerve connects to the retina in the back of each eye is known as the optic disk. There is a total absence of cones and rods in this area, and consequently, each eye is completely blind in this spot. As a result, it is referred to as the blind spot that everyone has in each eye. Under normal binocular vision conditions (both eyes are used together), this is not a problem because an object cannot be in the blind spot of both eyes at the same time. On the other hand, where the field of vision of one eye is obstructed by an object (windshield divider or another aircraft), a visual target could fall in the blind spot of the other eye and remain undetected.


The figure below provides a dramatic example of the eye’s blind spot.

  1. Print the figure below. Hold this page at an arm’s length.
  2. Completely cover your left eye (without closing or pressing on it) using your hand or other flat object.
  3. With your right eye, stare directly at the airplane on the left side of the picture page.In your periphery, you will notice the black X on the right side of the picture.
  4. Slowly move the page closer to you while continuing to stare at the airplane.
  5. When the page is about 16–18 inches from you, the black X should disappear completely because it has been imaged onto the blind spot of your right eye. (Resist the temptation to move your right eye while the black X is gone or else it reappears. Keep staring at the airplane.)
  6. As you continue to look at the airplane, keep moving the page closer to you a few more inches, and the black X will come back into view.
  7. There is an interval where you are able to move the page a few inches backward and forward, and the black X will be gone. This demonstrates to you the extent of your blind spot.
  8. You can try the same thing again, except this time with your right eye covered stare at the black X with your left eye. Move the page in closer and the airplane will disappear.


Another way to check your blind spot is to do a similar test outside at night when there is a full moon. Cover your left eye, looking at the full moon with your right eye. Gradually move your right eye to the left (and maybe slightly up or down). Before long, all you will be able to see is the large halo around the full moon; the entire moon itself will seem to have disappeared.

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